Tag Archives: PSGI

Using hypnotoad in production, anyone?

So, you're using hypnotoad in production. And it works perfectly for you. Maybe you have an Nginx or Apache in front of it configured as reverse proxy. Everything's great. Right? Right. Then I have a zillion questions for you.

Maybe I don't understand how it works, but I'm having the following problems:

  • "sometimes" hypnotoad won't stop. I usually try to stop it with:
    hypnotoad --stop /path/to/my/script
  • I use symlinks to deploy applications, so for example I deploy in /opt/myapp and each new deployment gets a timestamped folder, /opt/myapp/releases/20120224-180801.

    Then there's a symlink that always points to the last deployed version, /opt/myapp/current/opt/myapp/releases/{whatever-datetime}. Now, using hypnotoad --stop /opt/myapp/current doesn't work, because hypnotoad probably uses the actual filename, not the symlink, to identify the running application.

    That's fine, but then how can I stop it reliably? I wish it had a hypnotoad --force-stop mode or something.

  • Last problem, when I push a new deployment, and stop and restart hypnotoad, often the application doesn't work properly, it only generates exceptions for unknown reasons. Stopping and restarting again manually usually fixes the problems…
  • I was a bit frustrated today, so I decided to switch back to starman. I have never ever had a problem with it, so I will stick to it for now. But I would still be interested to know whether you use hypnotoad in production and how well it works. Write in the small box below, you don't need to register. Thanks :)

Using Template Toolkit with Mojolicious

For an upcoming project, I decided to try and use Mojolicious in production. That would be the first time, so I'm quite excited to see what's going to happen.

A few days ago I wrote some sample application that just loads a basic Template Toolkit template and renders it, and benchmarked it using both:

  • mod_perl and Plack::Handler::Apache2 and,
  • using starman as self-contained HTTP server running the psgi application

I have to say that I was quite impressed with the performance level of Starman. I got 1,000+ (a thousand plus) requests per second without the server even breaking a sweat. The command line, just in case, was:

starman --workers 32 ./app.psgi

Anyway, back to using TT. I found myself searching for recipes on how to use TT with Mojolicious because there wasn't a clear documented answer on how to do it, or at least I didn't find it. An example of what I came up with follows.

Step 1: the Mojolicious application class

First you have to create your application class. You should probably use the script that generate the basic skeleton for you. There's nice documentation on how to do that. My class looks like this:

package My::PSGI::App;

use strict;
use base 'Mojolicious';
use Opera::Config;

sub startup {
    my $self = shift;

    # Our internal configuration system
    my $conf = Opera::Config->new();
    my $tmpl_dir = $conf->get('Template:include_dir');
    my $cache_dir = $conf->get('Template:cache_dir');

    # Tell Mojolicious we want to load the TT renderer plugin
    $self->plugin(tt_renderer => {
        template_options => {
            # These options are specific to TT
            INCLUDE_PATH => $tmpl_dir,
            COMPILE_DIR => $cache_dir,
            COMPILE_EXT => '.ttc',
            # ... anything else to be passed on to TT should go here


    my $r = $self->routes;

    # Your routes should go here
    # ... and so on ...



To have your TT templates picked up, you only need a few more things.


When you declare that you want to load the tt_renderer plugin (see above, $self->plugin(tt_renderer=>...)), then Mojolicious will "camelize" the tt_renderer string, turn it into Mojolicious::Plugin::TtRenderer, and try to load that plugin, if available.

Turns out there was a MojoX::Renderer::TT CPAN module that also contained a class called Mojolicious::Plugin::TtRenderer. I said there was because Sebastian Riedel, the main developer of Mojolicious had in the meantime deprecated the MojoX namespace.

Since we're building the modules we want to use in production as deb packages, we would have run the risk to package MojoX::Renderer::TT to have it changed later because of this namespace conflict. To avoid this, I decided to fork its repository and put together a patch to remove the use of the MojoX:: namespace. With this, I hoped to get the thing done and hopefully picked up quickly by the maintainer of MojoX::Renderer::TT.

Turned out that he was super responsive (thanks Ask!) to merge the change and release it to CPAN, so ladies and gentlemen, I hereby announce we have Mojolicious::Plugin::TtRenderer 1.20+ out!

In fact, the old deprecated MojoX:: module is still there, just don't use it, and install Mojolicious::Plugin::TtRenderer instead.

Templates naming

Another thing you need for TT to work out of the box is that your templates should(*) be named sometemplate.html.tt. (*) probably you can deviate from this convention, I just don't know yet.

Your controller should specify TT as the renderer

UPDATE: this is not needed. If you're using:


in your main application class, then you won't need to specify format and handler in every controller.

Again, not sure it's really needed (no, it's not, read above), check before you copy/paste. Here's a simple action from one of my controllers (following the previous example):

package My::PSGI::App::Account;
use strict;
use base 'Mojolicious::Controller';
sub login {
    my $self = shift;
        template => 'path/to/template', # *without* .html.tt
        format   => 'html',
        handler  => 'tt',


That should be it: have fun!

EDIT: Thanks Robert for the suggestions.

Disassembling a real world Plack PSGI application

After I started playing with Plack, I tried to evaluate whether to continue using it for our mission-critical production stuff or give up, going back to the same techniques we already use (successfully).

I think it's time to develop and deploy a Plack based application. In my grand plan, :-), I'd like to deploy nginx with PSGI support, or even more ambitiously, nginx or apache with Starman as "backend" http server. We'll see…

In the meantime, I'd like to write here a couple of niceties about Plack and Starman, showing some real code I wrote when I started.

A real world PSGI application

Here's a sample PSGI application currently under development:

#!/usr/bin/env perl
# Sample PSGI application

use strict;
#se warnings;
use constant ENVIRONMENT         => 'development';
use constant APACHE_DEPLOYMENT   => (ENVIRONMENT eq 'production');
use constant ENABLE_ACCESS_LOG   => (ENVIRONMENT eq 'development');
use constant ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS => (ENVIRONMENT eq 'development');

use Plack::Builder;
use AuthOpera;
use AuthOpera::Account;

my $app = AuthOpera::Account->new(); 

builder {

    enable_if { not APACHE_DEPLOYMENT }
        path => qr{^/(bitmaps/|images/|js/|css/|downtime/|favicon.ico$|ping.html$)},
        root => '..',

    mount "/account" => builder {

        enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'StackTrace';
        enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'Debug';   # panels => [ qw(DBITrace Memory) ];
        enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'Lint';
        enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'Runtime';
        enable_if { ENABLE_ACCESS_LOG   } 'AccessLog';




Of course, the main application code is not here, but in the AuthOpera::Account class. That's not really relevant to what we're discussing here. Let's just say that any class, to be a valid and complete PSGI application, has to:

  • subclass from Plack::Component
  • have a call() method
  • the call() method must return a valid PSGI response. Example:
    package MyPSGIApp;
    use strict;
    use Data:: Dumper ();
    use parent 'Plack::Component';
    sub call {
        # $env is the full PSGI environment
        my ($self, $env) = @_;
        return [
            # HTTP Status code
            # HTTP headers as arrayref
            [ 'Content-type' => 'text/html' ],
            # Response body as array ref
            [ '<!DOCTYPE html>',
              '<body><h1>Hello world</h1><pre>',
              Data:: Dumper:: Dumper($env),

That's it, this is a full PSGI application that does dump all its PSGI environment.

Of course in a real example, you probably want a template engine to return the page content, etc… That's what we are building for our applications. Actually just assembling the components we already have developed during these years, so we have template classes, config classes, localization, database access, etc…

So we're basically just gluing these ready made components inside the PSGI application, and then using them. I don't think this is particularly original, but it allows us to quickly "port" our code to PSGI and thus run anywhere we want to.

app.psgi in detail

Now, let's see the PSGI app in more detail.

use constant ENVIRONMENT         => 'development';
use constant APACHE_DEPLOYMENT   => (ENVIRONMENT eq 'production');
use constant ENABLE_ACCESS_LOG   => (ENVIRONMENT eq 'development');
use constant ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS => (ENVIRONMENT eq 'development');

These constants are used to turn on and off certain features mentioned later in the builder {} block. I just found out the other day that these constants are near to useless. That is because plackup and starman already provide a -E environment switch. If you start your application with:

starman -E development myapp.psgi     # same with plackup, the default server

then Plack will by default enable the debugging panels and the Apache-style access log. I found out about this after having written that file. This means that the following enable_ifs are unnecessary:

mount "/myroot" => builder {
    enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'StackTrace';
    enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'Debug';   # panels => [ qw(DBITrace Memory) ];
    enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'Lint';
    enable_if { ENABLE_DEBUG_PANELS } 'Runtime';
    enable_if { ENABLE_ACCESS_LOG   } 'AccessLog';

I think Plack enables by default at least StackTrace, Debug, and AccessLog. In my case, however, I'm also enabling RunTime and Lint. But more importantly, I need to differentiate between Apache deployment and Starman deployment. That affects the way static files are served.

When deploying under Apache, I don't need the following:

enable_if { not APACHE_DEPLOYMENT }
    path => qr{^/(bitmaps/|images/|js/|css/|downtime/|favicon.ico$|ping.html$)},
    root => '..';

because my PSGI application is enabled in an Apache <Location> block, as in:

<Location /myroot/>
    SetHandler perl-script
    PerlResponseHandler Plack::Handler::Apache2
    PerlSetVar psgi_app /my/path/to/app.psgi

So Apache already takes care of serving the static files for me. However, when running completely under Starman, I need to tell it which folders or paths need to be served as static files, and where they are located. This is the purpose of the Static middleware:

enable_if { not APACHE_DEPLOYMENT } 'Plack::Middleware::Static',
    path => qr{^/(images/|js/|css/|favicon.ico$)},
    root => '/var/www/something';

If you're always deploying through plackup or starman, then, again, you don't need any enable_if, just enable. Maybe it's also a good idea to put everything under /static. For me that wasn't possible, since I already had existing content:

enable 'Plack::Middleware::Static',
    path => qr{^/static/},
    root => '/var/www/something';


About the Plack::Builder bit, and the related builder function. That is a function that helps you specify what you want Plack to run and how. Example:

builder {
    enable 'StackTrace';
    enable 'Debug';
    enable 'AccessLog';

where StackTrace, Debug, and AccessLog are all middleware classes, so causes Plack to wrap your final $app application first with the AccessLog middleware, then Debug and then StackTrace. I didn't check the code, but I believe this creates 3 different PSGI applications that are meant to fiddle with the response that your own application generates.

PSGI makes this possible, and it's just great. More middleware means easier and faster development. And ultimately, very good middleware makes for great reuse too.

The mount wrapper

I used mount in my example very basicly, but you can use mount to assemble compounds of applications in a very simple way. The same thing you do, for example, with Django and urls.py, except that, if you have seen a non-trivial urls.py, it looks like spaghetti after a while. Compare with this:

my $app1 = MyApp->new();
my $app2 = MyApp2->new();

builder {

    enable 'Plack::Middleware::Static', 
        path => qr{^/static/},
        root => '/var/www/something';

    mount "/path1" => builder {
        enable 'StackTrace';

    mount "/path2" => $app2;

    mount "/path3" => builder {
        enable 'SomeMiddleware';


Of course, then you have to add some dispatcher logic to your applications, but in the Plack world, we don't lack good dispatchers.

Plack rocks.

Plack, the grand glue

I have been looking at Plack for several months now. I always thought it was a cool project, where "cool" means useful, good code, nice documentation, well structured, strong development "flow", etc…

Lately I've been "rebooting" an internal project, doing a lot of infrastructure work like deployment tools, management of different environments like devel, test, staging and production, bug fixing, etc… Regular stuff that you usually already take for granted, but this project didn't have, for many reasons.

After this rebooting work, time has come to add new features to the web-facing part of this project, so new pages and forms. My frustration came from mainly two factors:

  • the code being tightly integrated with mod_perl
  • the need to change the apache config every time you add a new /something to the application

While the mod_perl integration is not necessarily a bad thing, and mod_perl is a fast and reliable product serving millions of pageviews per day, it's also nice to have code that you can run anywhere, not just on Apache. That might or might not happen, but I'd want to be ready when that's needed. In fact, we're starting to use nginx on some applications, including My Opera

So I decided to invest some time to play with Plack. Plack transposed to Perl concepts from Ruby's Rack and WSGI, a spec born in the Python world I believe.

I'm still at the first experiments with it, but Plack is a great software with a spectacular potential! If you're in doubt, try it for yourself. What made me decide to try Plack was Starman.

Starman is a damn fast PSGI-enabled preforking HTTP web server written in Perl. As soon as I started starman with a stupid simple app.psgi I realized I had to invest some time in it.

A couple of days later I have the slick opera.com design into a bunch of Template Toolkit blocks, with all machinery to make them work for real, and a PSGI application class. From the screenshot you can see this request is loaded in 38 ms, and this my desktop machine, and the Debug middleware gives you useful debugging info through sidebar panels.

I can run this class either as standalone with Starman, or in Apache + mod_perl with Plack::Handler::Apache2 or anything else for that matter, like FastCGI, or even plain CGI if you want that.

And I think that shows:

  • how cool the PSGI/WSGI concept is
  • that you can really code once, run anywhere, and don't care about the web server stack